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Chemical composition -- Titanium oxide.

Color -- Brownish-red to black.

Optics -- R.I. 2.62-2.90. Metallic to adamantine luster.

Durability -- Hardness 6-6.5.

Crystal structure -- Tetragonal.

Specific Gravity -- 4.2.

Sources -- Brazil, George, Arkansas, North Carolina, other locations. Usually found as needle-like crystal inclusions in quartz (rutilated quartz) or agate (sagenite) and in many other materials.

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